In a study, the development of a vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC)–driven lymphatic framework and its correlation with patient relapse has been interrogated by the researcher Maeva Dufies: Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging of Nice, University with Corresponding Author: Gilles Pagès, Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging of Nice, University Nice-Sophia Antipolis.
The outcomes of this xerographic study expressed that, in experimental tumors, sunitinib invigorated the VEGFC-dependent development of lymphatic vessels. This demonstrated the escalated invasion of lymph node and instituted new metastatic sites in 30% of sunitinib-untreated patients with clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) and describes the increased lymphatic vessels found in 70% of neoadjuvant-treated patients.
The findings of the research illustrate that a therapy deliberated to destroy tumor blood vessels actually stimulates the development of lymphatic vessels and may be instrumental to treatment failure in patients.
The author comments, although sunitinib [FDA- approved multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor given as first line treatment for (RCC) and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)], primarily targets the host blood vessels through inhibition of VEGF receptors, the channel of patient relapse is linked with increased lymph node metastasis & lymphangiogenesis via stimulation of VEGFC mRNA expression through p38-mediated inactivation of TTP.
In RCC, the p38 inhibitor decreases the sunitinib-dependent expansion in the VEGFC mRNA. The co-authors identified effective drug candidates targeting TTP for anticancer therapies using several independent groups. While ccRCC presents 85% of kidney cancers and 3% of adult cancers, if detected early, the principal treatment is surgery. However, many patients are identified with a disease in metastatic stage. Metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients have a poor prognosis because of innate resistance to chemo- and radio-therapy. More recently, cabozantinib which inhibits VEGFR, c-MET and anti-PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab were suggested as other alternatives. However, sunitinib treatment advantages are temporary in most cases and the larger number of patients relapses after one year
Perhaps, recent preclinical indications have exposed that anti-angiogenic treatment may evoke metastatic cell phenotypes which, consequentially, may also compromise tumor-contracting benefits. However, figured out by Maeva Dufies, Sandy Giualiano, Gilles Pagès & co-authors also, contradicted by clinical studies, lymphatic system is regarded to be one of the main routes of tumor cell circulation that causes distant metastatic growth during tumor development. Moreover, the author perceives that anti-angiogenic treatment advantages may be compromised by the treatment-dependent development of lymphatic vessels. The identification of the hostility of their cancers as per the existence of lymphatic vessels may be utilized for a better stratum of at-risk patients. A specialized follow-up would enhance the therapeutic response for a better outcome.
Through the analysis of author: VEGFC is presently the finest featured lymphangiogenic factor that acts via VEGFR3. In adult tissues VEGFR3 expression is greatly limited to lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and its provocation is accountable for LEC proliferation, migration and continuance.
In their study, they described the stability of VEGFC mRNA is dependent on a delicate balance of mRNA binding proteins tristetraproline (TTP) and HuR, both binding a specific AU rich sequence in the 3′ non-coding site of the VEGFC mRNA. An evaluation of the predestination of patients treated displayed a robust interrelationship between the use of sunitinib and the existence of lymph node metastases and the development of new metastatic regions.
Further a clinical study to identify if VEGFC plasmatic level at the detection, in mRCC patients, could display a prognostic marker of progression free or complete survival. The author considers it unpropitious to have not been able to notice a definite interrelationship between VEGFC plasmatic amounts and survival. Catching of VEGFC generated by cancer cells in the tumor without any dissemination in the bloodstream may describe this divergent outcome. As a complementary evaluation, the existence of lymphatic vessels should also be examined in the primary tumor and interrelated with both overall and progression-free survival according to the author.
The author showed inclination to think that the time to progression of non-metastatic patients exhibiting lymphatic vessels in their tumors will be shorter. The presence of lymphatic vessels in the hostility of mRCC needs to be addressed in depth.
The author suggests; combining VEGFC inhibitors with sunitinib, or other TKIs, could help restricting the advancement of lymphatic vessels and keep tumor growth and dissemination in check.