The highly conserved rabies viral remains a neglected zoometric disease in many developing countries due to constraints of diagnosis. In virtue of discovering and evaluating an opportune technique for rapid detection of rabies virus using an enzyme immunoassay, a mark is seen to set in branch of medical science dealing with diagnosis of rabies in humans and animals. A team of international researchers at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America, bring into light the propensity of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based for detection of rabies virus. This ELISA-based method for detection of rabies virus presents advocated tests for rapid diagnosis of rabies, as compared to the most commonly used fluorescent antibody test (FAT) that’s not only expensive but necessitate expertise to perform and interpret the results.
The authors in alliance conducted a study, taking Brain homogenates of suspected rabid humans (n = 16) animals (n = 250) and clinical samples like saliva (n = 12) directly spotted on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (PVDF). A simple direct ELISA-based technique for diagnosis of rabies virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies has been developed and assessed to root out the rabies antigen in brain specimens of humans and animals. The utility of this test in the ante-mortem detection of human rabies has also been examined and the results were evaluated with (FAT) (for brain samples) and mouse vaccination test (for saliva and CSF samples).
It is quite shocking but the reality remains that most of the human departures from life happens due to rabies, more specific in Asia and Africa. Estimates of human deaths due to endemic canine rabies in Asia and Africa annually surpassed 30,000 and 23,000, respectively, probably causing in more human lives and livestock losses. Although human rabies is believed to be almost 100% lethal, the reported survival of a team of researchers who developed and evaluated (ELISA) with purified recombinant N protein expressed in E. coli have revived interest in the medical community to apply experimental therapeutic approaches.
The aptitude for treatment offers an additional stimulus to attempt to make the diagnosis at earliest possible and, that being so, ante mortem laboratory detection has gained greater significance in recent years.
For the purpose of achieving sizeable success in controlling canine rabies and minimizing human rabies transmitted by dogs, using a simple, reliable and rapid sandwich ELISA (WELYSSA) is conjectured to accomplish the ambition.
Until now Laboratory diagnosis and surveillance for human rabies are by n large restrained in much of the developing world where rabies is a native mainly due to rabies remain underestimated here. Realizing the need of a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory technique for rapid rabies diagnosis, ELISA (WELYSSA) has shown its potential of detection of viruses belonging to all 7 genotypes diffusing in Asia, Africa, Oceania and Europe.
Authors display; another productive test for rabies viral antigen detection that includes Rapid Rabies Enzyme Immunodiagnosis (RREID). By implementing an immuno histo chemical technique as well as enzyme immunoassays, the rabies N antigen can be easily and rapidly detected. This method of diagnosis is based on capturing rabies N protein in a brain homogenate by a monoclonal or polyclonal anti-N antibody laminated on the solid phase. Consequently, the captured antigen is diagnosed by adding peroxidase conjugated polyclonal or monoclonal antibody heightened in distinct species or even better by supplementing biotinylated N antibody followed by colour development with hydrogen peroxide, diamino benzedine and o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD).
In different trials, the (RREID) test is concluded to be as specific and as sensitive as FAT. However, an added advantage of RREID remains in characteristic that entails that partial breakdown of the brain will not affect the test result. One limitation of the test includes the requirement of brain tissue, which interrupts its use in ante mortem detection.
The ELISA-based technique for diagnosis of rabies virus nucleoprotein-specific dot blot described here is a subtle, specific and rapid test for the post-mortem detection of rabies in humans and animals. The specificity of the test was observed to be 100%, even so, the utility of this test for the ante-mortem detection of rabies requires further investigation.